2022 Hard White Wheat Crop Offers Quality Performance in Milling, Baking
The 2022 hard white (HW) samples show good quality performance in milling, dough properties and finished products, including pan breads, Asian noodles and steamed breads. The Pacific Northwest (PNW), California and Southern Plains composites all show acceptable to excellent bread baking potential according to their respective protein contents. For Asian noodle applications, using 60% extraction patent flour is recommended to improve noodle color while maintaining noodle texture. For steamed breads, it is recommended that high protein HW flour be blended with a portion of soft white (SW) flour to improve product quality.
2022 CROP HIGHLIGHTS
PRODUCTION for the 2022 HW crop is 472,308 MT, down 33%compared to last year and the 5-year average. Much of the decrease is due to extreme drought conditions experienced across the Southern Plains. Seeded acres were also down for winter and spring planted hard white compared to 2021.
GRADE average for all composites is U.S. No. 1.
TEST WEIGHT averages range from 60.2 to 62.6 lb/bu (79.2 to 82.3 kg/hl).
WHEAT MOISTURE ranges are 8.4 to 10.5%; WHEAT PROTEIN 11.3 to 13.9% (12% mb).
1000 KERNEL WEIGHT for the Southern Plains very high-, Pacific Northwest very high- and California high-protein composites are 26.6, 27.8 and 28.2 g, respectively. All others are 30.0 g or higher.
KERNEL CHARACTERISTICS include kernel hardness averages of 50.6 to 78.7 and kernel diameters of 2.47 to 2.86 mm.
FALLING NUMBER averages 382 sec or higher for all composites.
LABORATORY MILL straight-grade flour extractions range 70.2 to 74.3%, L* values (whiteness) 92.2 to 92.9, flour protein 10.9 to 13.3% (14% mb) and flour ash 0.43 to 0.51% (14% mb).
Flour and Dough Data
Flour WET GLUTEN contents range 28.2 to 35.4% depending on flour protein content.
AMYLOGRAPH peak viscosities are between 759 and 1076 BU for all composites.
FARINOGRAPH water absorptions range 57.2 to 65.1% and stability times 8.0 to 40.3 min, exhibiting medium to strong dough characteristics. HW farinograph water absorption is usually similar to that of HRW, but historically stability time is longer, indicating more tolerance to overmixing.
EXTENSOGRAPH data at 135 min rest shows maximum resistance in the range of 462 to 1126 BU, extensibility from 6.5 to 17.9 cm and area of 69 to 206 cm2. Maximum resistance for the California low- and Southern Plains medium-protein composites are 544 and 462 BU, respectively. All other composites are 717 BU or higher.
ALVEOGRAPH ranges are P (68 to 128 mm); L (81 to 130 mm); and W (227 to 389 (10-4 J)).
DAMAGED STARCH values are in the range of 4.3 to 8.3%.
Lactic acid SRC values range from 129 to 156%, indicating medium to strong gluten strength.
Product Test Results
BAKING EVALUATION for all composites shows acceptable to excellent baking performance relative to protein content, with bake absorptions in the range of 62.2 to 70.1%, loaf volumes of 728 to 985 cc, and crumb grain and texture scores that are similar to or better than a typical HRW flour.
CHINESE RAW NOODLES (white salted) L* values after 24 hr of storage at room temperature are acceptable for all composites except the PNW medium-protein composite. The sensory color stability scores are acceptable for all composites with the exception of the PNW medium- and California high-protein composites. Cooked noodle texture is acceptable for all composites.
CHINESE WET NOODLES (yellow alkaline) sensory color stability scores are similar to or better than the control for parboiled noodles from the California and Southern Plains composites. The cooked noodle texture is acceptable for all composites except the PNW medium-protein composite.
Overall, this year’s HW samples will produce noodles with acceptable color and texture if low ash patent flour is used.
STEAMED BREAD results show most composites have good specific volumes with total scores similar to the control flour with the exception of the Southern Plains very high-protein composite. Blending 25% SW flour with high protein HW flour may improve overall steamed bread quality.